The development of novel optical elements for Extreme UV (EUV) and Soft X-Ray (SXR) wavelengths (0.1 to 100 nm) is of high interest for applications such as X-ray fluorescence analysis. Further interest lies in EUV lithography, beam delivery and nano-focusing of X-ray free-electron lasers, and of sources based on high-harmonic generation. Due to the very short wavelengths (1-10 nm), the realization of such optics has to be done with nano-patterning. In this research project, we investigate novel types of optical components for the EUV/SXR range. The research involves the theoretical description, fabrication and optical investigation of advanced multi-nano-layers systems combined with lateral nano-structuring to realize three-dimensional photonic structures, such as Bragg-Fresnel optics, Lamellar Multilayer Gratings (LMG) or Borrman-based transmission filters.